We study Logarithmically Spiral Trajectories and, in particular, we look for a solution to minimize the transit time of a Spacecraft propelled by a Solar Sail, while simultaneously minimizing the area of the Solar Sail, which would allow us to carry more payload on board. We start by analyzing the forces that act on the Spacecraft taking into account that its propellant is a Solar Sail; we use the studied forces to deduce the motion equations. We then solve this motion equation with a Runge-Kutta 4 method and transform the problem of minimizing time and area to a Non-linear Optimization problem. When solving the NLP we also try to minimize the relative final speed of th spacecraft with the destination planet in order to guarantee the possibility of a safe landing on its surface. The model improves when an angle parameter α (describing the angle formed by the Solar Sail with the colliding photons) is defined as a piecewise constant function and optimized whose values are optimized in every interval to minimize transit time and Area. Using the developed model to optimize the trajectory to be followed for sending from Earth to Mars a 2000kg-spacecraft propelled by a Solar Sail, subject to the condition that at trajectory start Mars and Earth were at their closest approach, and the Arrival Relative Velocity is less than 9km/s, give us a minimal transit time of 500days and a minimal area for the Solar Sail of 183158m2, meaning that the maximal payload would be 718kg. Compared with different number of partitions of α, the optimum stays stable. This gives a solid optimal trajectory and a great result for the numerical method used. Actually, waiting until the best moment to throw the Spacecraft, id est, Mars is at 1.14 radians respectively to Earth initial position, the minimal sail area 145950 m2 and, therefore, ables to transport until 978 kg of payload with the same transit time. In addition and to conclude we tried the model to optimize the inverse trajectory.
Marco Praderio Bova, Eneko Martin Martinez, & Maria dels Àngels Guinovart Llort
Bacterial cells can have DNA damage due to transcriptional error, or through the effect of an antibiotic. The SOS response is a bacterial cell program for coping with DNA damage, in which the cell cycle is arrested, and DNA repair is induced. The repairs have high probability in leading to mutagenesis in the bacteria, which can lead to antibiotic resistance. The RecA protein in bacteria is responsible for the activation of the SOS response; therefore, making it a target for inhibition. I elected to use the ubiquitination system, natively used for apoptosis, as a means of targeted degradation of the RecA protein in bacteria prone to mutations. Polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins leads to the breaking down of the protein with the aid of proteasomes, which break down unnecessary proteins through a chemical reaction known as proteolysis. Using random forest-predictors, I determined a statistically high likelihood of ubiquitination of the RecA protein in MRSA, Tuberculosis, and other high risk bacterial infections. I hypothesized that I could foster ubiquitin-tagging on RecA by forcing the protein to misfold. Chaperones are proteins which interact with each other to prevent specific sets of proteins from misfolding. CHIP (C terminus of HSC70-Interacting Protein) is a biomolecule that inhibits interactions between the chaperones of RecA. Adding CHIP, ubiquitin, and 26s proteasomes into the bacterial system, should theoretically lead to the degradation of the RecA protein inside the bacteria. I tested my hypothesis by conducting an assay for monitoring CHIP-mediated ubiquitination, and conducted analysis on the assay using SDS- Page gel electrophoresis, and Western-blotting. The resulting data showed signs of polyubiquitination on the RecA protein, with chains of five or more ubiquitin, showing high drug potential. Adding an antibody drug conjugate, containing all the necessary components of a CHIP-mediated ubiquitination reaction, to common antibiotics can lead to the inhibition of bacterial mutagenesis, and higher antibiotic drug potency.
This report provides insight into the magnetic phenomenon of Hysteresis. Hysteresis is defined as a retardation effect where the magnetisation of a magnetic material lags behind the magnetizing force. Here we will explore the hysteresis loop for a silver steel ferromagnet and use this to discover it’s magnetic properties. The method used will be to place a ferromagnet inside a solenoid with an alternating voltage which will continually reverse the magnetic field and magnetism direction. The relation between these two quantities will be used to produce a hysteresis loop from which magnetic properties can be deduced. The results obtained were: saturation magnetisation = (8.4±0.5)(105)Am-1; remnant magnetisation = (5.9±0.5)(105)Am-1; coercive field: (4.3±0.5)(104)Am-1; energy expended per cycle per unit volume of material: (1.55±0.05)(103)Jm-3s-1; energy product: (8.7±3.0)(104)Jm-3.